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A quick search of ayahuasca tourist and related websites reveals virtually identical statements of this claim: “The use of Ayahuasca has been recorded over 5000 years ago by the natives of Amazon and surrounding areas,” “Ayahuasca has been known to people for over 5000 years,” “This plant medicine has been used for over 5000 years throughout the Amazonian basin,” “Ayahuasca has been used for over 5000 years.” These examples could be multiplied. Just for perspective, the date of 3000 BC would make the origins of the ayahuasca drink as old as the founding of the first Egyptian dynasty, five centuries older than the reign of the Sumerian king Gilgamesh, and almost ten centuries older than the earliest South American devices yet discovered for the ingestion of DMT-containing plants—two pipes found in association with seeds in northwest Argentina, which have been radiocarbon dated to 2130 BC, and which had residues that tested positive for DMT (Torres, 1995, p. And while it is true that the parenteral ingestion of DMT-containing plants is of considerable antiquity in South America, there is no corresponding archeological or documentary evidence prior to the eighteenth century for the combination of a DMT-containing plant with the ayahuasca vine for oral ingestion.

But first: Why such extraordinary claims for which support is so thin? The first is that, in an attempt to legitimate ayahuasca use, its proponents invoke the culturally resonant trope of a millennia-old indigenous wisdom.

The presence of bufotenine suggests that the source of the powder was any of several DMT-rich plants in the genus (Torres, Repke, Chan, Mc Kenna, Llagostera, & Schultes, 1991; Torres 1996).

Many psychoactive alkaloids accumulate in hair and other body tissues.

The gastrointestinal effects of the beta-carboline MAO inhibitors additionally make the ayahuasca drink a powerful emetic and purgative. Writers on ayahuasca have often proposed that the use of the drink is very ancient; the date of about 5000 years BP recurs frequently.

These facts raise two highly controverted and interconnected puzzles. Anthropologists Ana María Llamazares and Carlos Martínez Sarasola (2004), for example, write that the use of ayahuasca “is so deep-rooted in the native philosophy and mythology that there is no doubt about its great antiquity, as a part of aboriginal life.

The second is the odd affectation of European colonialism that indigenous people are —that, unlike Europeans, they are unchanging in their isolation and innocence.

It then follows that the practices of present-day indigenous peoples must reproduce the practices of thousands of years ago.

Much later in time, the site of Tiwanaku, recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourished as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power approximately between 7 AD.As we noted above, such inhaled DMT is unaffected by the MAO-A in the gastric tract, and thus acts as a hallucinogen without the addition of the ayahuasca vine—and thus too without the gastrointestinal effects of the ayahuasca beta-carbolines. These Caribbean islands were colonized from South America about 400 AD.The earliest known snuffing devices in South America come from central coastal Peru—whale-bone snuff trays and bird-bone tubes, dated to approximately 1200 BC (Torres, 1995, p. The use of snuffed DMT-containing plants later became—along with the use of the San Pedro cactus—a central feature of the Chavín culture, which occupied the northern Andean highlands of Peru, about halfway between the tropical forests and coastal plains, from approximately 900 to 200 BC. In a study headed by Scott Fitzpatrick of North Carolina State University (Fitzpatrick, Kaye, Feathers, Pavia, & Marsaglia, 2009; see also Braun, 2008), petrographic analysis of the mineral content of the bowls indicated that they were not made using local materials, and thus were probably not manufactured on Carriacou, but rather imported from elsewhere.How in the world did indigenous peoples in the Upper Amazon come up with the idea of combining DMT with an MAO inhibitor? Archaeological finds in Ecuador show that the indigenous Amazons have been using it for about 5000 years.” Anthropologist Jeremy Narby (1998, p.154) states that ayahuasca “belongs to the indigenous people of Western Amazonia, who hold the keys to a way of knowing that they have practiced without interruption for at least five thousand years.” Anthropologist Peter Furst (1976; p.

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45-46) says that “we are probably not far wrong in suggesting that [the ayahuasca drink] is at least as old …

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  1. Suas culturas diversificadas compunham originalmente um rico mosaico de tradições, línguas e visões de mundo que, depois de serem longamente desprezadas como típicas de sociedades bárbaras, ingênuas e atrasadas, ou no máximo apreciadas como exotismos e curiosidades, hoje já começam a ser vistas em larga escala como culturas complexas, sofisticadas em muitos aspectos, interessantes por si mesmas e portadoras de valores importantes para o mundo moderno, como o respeito pela Natureza e um modo de vida sustentável, merecendo consideração como qualquer outra.